Ring theory

A Ring (R, +, *) is a set R with binary operations + and * satisfying the following axioms:

  • (R, +) is an abelian group,
  • (R, *) is a semigroup,
  • Multiplication distributes over addition: a * (b+c) = a * b + a * c and (a+b) * c = a * c + b * c for all a, b, c in R.

Rings that also satisfy commutativity for multiplication are called commutative rings.

In some definitions the semigroup (R, *)  is required to have an identity 1.